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The molecular mechanisms have been shown to involve DNA repair enzymes, but the exact nature of these processes is still under investigation. The relative differences between LDMH interactions with human and rodent cells are presented to help in the understanding of possible roles of LDMH in clinical application.

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The positive aspects of LDMH-brachytherapy for clinical application are sixfold; 1 the thermal goals temperature, time and volume are achievable with currently available technology, 2 the hyperthermia by itself has no detectable toxic effects, 3 thermotolerance appears to play a minor if any role in radiation sensitization, 4 TER of around 2 can be expected, 5 hypoxic fraction may be decreased due to blood flow modification and 6 simultaneous chemotherapy may also be sensitized. Combined LDMH and brachytherapy is a cancer therapy that has established biological rationale and sufficient technical and clinical advancements to be appropriately applied.

This modality is ripe for clinical testing. During the current testing program, an Blast Flow vs.

Microcontroller uses in Long-Duration Ballooning. This paper discusses how microcontrollers are being utilized to fulfill the demands of long duration ballooning LDB and the advantages of doing so. The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility CSBF offers the service of launching high altitude balloons k ft which provide an over the horizon telemetry system and platform for scientific research payloads to collect data. CSBF has utilized microcontrollers to address multiple tasks and functions which were previously performed by more complex systems.

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A microcontroller system has been recently developed and programmed in house to replace our previous backup navigation system which is used on all LDB flights. A similar microcontroller system was developed to be independently launched in Antarctica before the actual scientific payload. This system's function is to transmit its GPS position and a small housekeeping packet so that we can confirm the upper level float winds are as predicted from satellite derived models. Microcontrollers have also been used to create test equipment to functionally check out the flight hardware used in our telemetry systems.

One test system which was developed can be used to quickly determine if our communication link we are providing for the science payloads is functioning properly. Another system was developed to provide us with the ability to easily determine the status of one of our over the horizon communication links through a closed loop system. This test system has given us the capability to provide more field support to science groups than we were able to in years past.

The trend of utilizing microcontrollers has taken place for a number of reasons. By using microcontrollers to fill these needs, it has given us the ability to quickly design and implement systems which meet flight critical needs, as well as perform many of the everyday tasks in LDB. This route has also allowed us to reduce the amount of time required for personnel to perform a number of the tasks required.

Long duration performance of high temperature irradiation resistant thermocouples. Many advanced nuclear reactor designs require new fuel, cladding, and structural materials. Data are needed to characterize the performance of these new materials in high temperature, radiation conditions. However, traditional methods for measuring temperature in-pile degrade at temperatures above C degrees.

To address this instrumentation need, the Idaho National Laboratory INL developed and evaluated the performance of a high temperature irradiation-resistant thermocouple that contains alloys of molybdenum and niobium. To verify the performance of INL's recommended thermocouple design, a series of high temperature from to C long duration up to six months tests has been initiated.

This paper summarizes results from the tests that have been completed.

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In addition, post test metallographic examinations are discussed which confirm the compatibility of thermocouple materials throughout these long duration , high temperature tests. There are papers on the technology needed for LDSMs. Few are looking at how groundbased pre-mission training and on-board in-transit training must be melded into one training concept that leverages this technology. This certification must ensure, before the crew launches, that they can handle any problem using on-board assets without a large ground support team.

Personal growth following long-duration spaceflight. As long-duration missions are and will remain the norm, it is important for the space agencies and the voyagers themselves to develop a better understanding and possible enhancement of this phenomenon. TFTR neutral -beam test facility. A test installation for one source was set up using prototype equipment to discover and correct possible deficiencies, and to properly coordinate the equipment. This test facility represents the first opportunity for assembling an integrated system of hardware supplied by diverse vendors, each of whom designed and built his equipment to performance specifications.

For the installation and coordination of the different portions of the total system, particular attention was given to personnel safety and safe equipment operation. This paper discusses various system components, their characteristics, interconnection and control. Results of the recently initiated test phase will be reported at a later date.

A century after Viktor Hess' discovery of cosmic rays, balloon flights still play a central role in the investigation of cosmic rays over nearly their entire spectrum. We report on the current status of NASA balloon program for particle astrophysics, with particular emphasis on the very successful Antarctic long-duration balloon program, and new developments in the progress toward ultra- long duration balloons. In , on the eve of human space travel Strughold first proposed a simple classification of the present and future stages of manned flight that identified key factors, risks and developmental stages for the evolutionary journey ahead.

As we look to optimize the potential of the ISS as a gateway to new destinations, we need a current shared working definitional model of long duration human space flight to help guide our path. Initial search of formal and grey literature augmented by liaison with subject matter experts.

Search strategy focused on both the use of term long duration mission and long duration spaceflight, and also broader related current and historical definitions and classification models of spaceflight. The related sea and air travel literature was also subsequently explored with a view to identifying analogous models or classification systems. There are multiple different definitions and classification systems for spaceflight including phase and type of mission, craft and payload and related risk management models.

However the frequently used concepts of long duration mission and long duration spaceflight are infrequently operationally defined by authors, and no commonly referenced classical or gold standard definition or model of these terms emerged from the search. The categorization Cat system for sailing was found to be of potential analogous utility, with its focus on understanding the need for crew and craft autonomy at various levels of potential adversity and inability to gain outside support or return to a safe location, due to factors of time, distance and location.

This slide presentation reviews the development and use of a tool for assessing spaceflight cognitive ability in astronauts. This tool. Its use is medically required for all long-duration missions and it contains a battery of five cognitive assessment subtests that are scheduled monthly and compared against the individual preflight baseline. Its purpose is to provide ISS crew surgeons with an objective clinical tool after an unexpected traumatic event, a medical condition, or the cumulative effects of space flight that could negatively affect an astronaut's cognitive status and threaten mission success.

WinSCAT was recently updated to add network capability to support a 6-person crew on the station support computers. ISS performance data were assessed to compare initial to modified interpretation rules for detecting potential changes in cognitive functioning during space flight. Applying the newly derived rules to ISS data results in a number of off-nominal performances at various times during and after flight..

Correlation to actual events is needed, but possible explanations for off-nominal performances could include actual physical factors such as toxic exposure, medication effects, or fatigue; emotional factors including stress from the mission or life events; or failure to exert adequate effort on the tests. Game-based evaluation of personalized support for astronauts in long duration missions.

Long duration missions set high requirements for personalized astronaut support that takes into account the social, cognitive and affective state of the astronaut. Such support should be tested as thoroughly as possible before deployment into space. The in-orbit influences of the astronaut's state.

Activity enhances dopaminergic long-duration response in Parkinson disease. Lynn; Grimes, David A. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that dopamine-dependent motor learning mechanism underlies the long-duration response to levodopa in Parkinson disease PD based on our studies in a mouse model. By data-mining the motor task performance in dominant and nondominant hands of the subjects in a double-blind randomized trial of levodopa therapy, the effects of activity and dopamine therapy were examined.

Results: The mean change in finger-tapping counts from baseline before the initiation of therapy to predose at 9 weeks and 40 weeks increased more in the dominant compared to nondominant hand in levodopa-treated subjects in a dose-dependent fashion. There was no significant difference in dominant vs nondominant hands in the placebo group. The short-duration response assessed by the difference of postdose performance compared to predose performance at the same visit did not show any significant difference between dominant vs nondominant hands.

Such effect was confined to dopamine-responsive symptoms and not seen in dopamine-resistant symptoms such as gait and balance. We propose that long-lasting motor learning facilitated by activity and dopamine is a form of disease modification that is often seen in trials of medications that have symptomatic effects. Barta, Daniel J. A new wastewater recovery system has been developed that combines novel biological and physicochemical components for recycling wastewater on long duration human space missions.

At its center are two unique game changing technologies: 1 a biological water processor BWP to mineralize organic forms of carbon and nitrogen and 2 an advanced membrane processor Forward Osmosis Secondary Treatment for removal of solids and inorganic ions. The AWP is designed for recycling larger quantities of wastewater from multiple sources expected during future exploration missions, including urine, hygiene hand wash, shower, oral and shave and laundry. The BWP utilizes a single-stage membrane-aerated biological reactor for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification.

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The BWP has been operated continuously for over days. If the wastewater is slighty acidified, ammonia rejection is optimal. This paper will provide a description of the technology and summarize results from ground-based testing using real wastewater.

ORNL keV neutral beam test facility. The test facility can simulate a complete beam line injection system and can provide a wide range of experimental operating conditions. Herein is offered a general description of the facility's capabilities and a discussion of present system performance. Advancing technology, coupled with the desire to explore space has resulted in increasingly longer manned space missions.

Although the Long Duration Space Flights LDSF have provided a considerable amount of scientific research on human ability to function in extreme environments, findings indicate long duration missions take a toll on the individual, both physiologically and psychologically.

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These physiological and psychological issues manifest themselves in performance decrements; and could lead to serious errors endangering the mission, spacecraft and crew. The purpose of this paper is to document existing knowledge of the effects of LDSF on performance, habitability, and workload and to identify and assess potential tools designed to address these decrements as well as propose an implementation plan to address the habitability, performance and workload issues.

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Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor neutral beam injection system vacuum chamber. The chamber will have a number of unorthodox features to accomodate both neutral beam and TFTR requirements. The design constraints, and the resulting chamber design, are presented. Production and utilization of high level and long duration shocks.